Increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella has been observed in the Philippines. We aimed to characterize the population and AMR mechanisms of Salmonella with whole genome sequencing (WGS) and compare it with laboratory surveillance methods.
The serotype, multilocus sequence type, AMR genes and relatedness between isolates were determined from the genomes of 148 Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) and 65 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) collected by the Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program during 2013–2014. Genotypic serotypes and AMR prediction were compared with phenotypic data.
AMR rates in S. Typhi were low, with sparse acquisition of mutations associated with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones or extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) genes. By contrast, 75% of NTS isolates were insusceptible to at least one antimicrobial, with more than half carrying mutations and/or genes linked to fluoroquinolone resistance. ESBL genes were detected in five genomes, which also carried other AMR determinants. The population of S. Typhi was dominated by likely endemic genotype 3.0, which caused a putative local outbreak. The main NTS clades were global epidemic S. Enteritidis ST11 and S. Typhimurium monophasic variant (I,4,,12: i: -) ST34.
We provide the first genomic characterization of Salmonella from the Philippines and evidence of WGS utility for ongoing surveillance.
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